Credit Risks Ascendancy on Water-Sanitation Infrastructure Investments in Kenya


  • Jonnah Owen Rao United States International University - Africa
  • Timothy Okech United States International University - Africa



The paper investigated the ascendancy of credit risks on water-sanitation infrastructure investments in Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methodology research design where qualitative and quantitative research approaches are used to test the research hypotheses. From a target population of 127, Total Population Sampling (TPS) was adopted whereby the whole population was studied. Both descriptive and inferential analysis methods were employed in the analysis. The study results show that that lack of access to funding infrastructure investments has seen poor cost recovery, weak governance and lack of institutional frameworks that adversely affect economic opportunities. From the empirical evidence and conclusion, an advancement to credit risks will need innovative financing models rolled out through co-financing and blended financing, risk pooling through tailor made infrastructure insurance products, private entity receiving a concession from the public sector to finance, design, construct, own, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract.


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Author Biography

Timothy Okech, United States International University - Africa

Associate Professor of Economics at United States International University-Africa and is currently serving as Chair, Accounting, Finance & Economics (AFE). He holds advanced degree in Economics with a bias in Health Economics and Okech has over eighteen years in capacity building, teaching and research. Areas of experience and interest include health systems strengthening, family planning and reproductive, maternal and neo-natal health, animal health & welfare, universal health coverage, training, quality assurance, health care financing and evaluation, Trade and Transportation, among others.



How to Cite

Jonnah Owen Rao, & Timothy Okech. (2021). Credit Risks Ascendancy on Water-Sanitation Infrastructure Investments in Kenya. Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation, 11(3), 258–269.